Tax Residency Certificate in India: A Comprehensive Guide

Navigating through the complete nuances of Tax residency Certificates in India - Complete details shared
min read
February 7, 2024


Managing tax liabilities efficiently is crucial for individuals and entities with cross-border earnings in the global economy. Like many countries, India has established measures to avoid double taxation—where income is taxed in both the country of origin and the country of residence.

One such measure is providing a Tax Residency Certificate (TRC), a vital document for claiming relief under the Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) provisions.

What is a Tax Residency Certificate?

A Tax Residency Certificate (TRC) is a certificate of residence issued by the tax authorities in India to ascertain an individual or entity's tax residency status. It acts as evidence of the taxpayer's residence in India for a specific financial year, assisting in determining tax liabilities in foreign jurisdictions.

For instance, an Indian business entity earning revenue from operations in another country may need a TRC to claim tax benefits under the DTAA between India and that country.

Tax Residency Certificate Explained With an Example

For instance,  a software company based in India, TechFlow Inc., provides services to clients in the United States. The income generated from the U.S. clientele would be subject to taxation in both countries without a DTAA.

However, with a DTAA in place, TechFlow Inc. can obtain a Tax Residency Certificate from the Indian tax authorities. With the TRC, TechFlow Inc. can claim relief on the U.S. withholding tax, ensuring they aren't doubly taxed on the same income. 

The application and issuance of a TRC are governed by the provisions laid down under Section 90 and Section 90A of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

These sections provide the framework for agreements with foreign countries or specified territories for relief from double taxation to promote cross-border trade and investments.

The TRC is a cornerstone for individuals and entities involved in international operations, ensuring they are not overburdened with taxes and can conduct business smoothly across borders.

As we delve deeper into the subsequent sections, we'll explore how to obtain a TRC, the associated Form 10F, and the myriad provisions surrounding this crucial certificate.

The Importance of Tax Residency Certificate

Tax Residency Certificate (TRC) Overview:

Significance for Indian Companies:

  • Example: EcoEnergy Ltd., an Indian multinational in renewable energy.
  • Revenue from overseas projects can be taxed in both the host country and India.
  • With a TRC, EcoEnergy Ltd. can claim tax residence in India, allowing it to avail DTAA benefits and avoid double taxation.

Benefits to the Business Environment:

  • Instills confidence among foreign investors and partners about the tax obligations of Indian entities.
  • Promotes a favorable environment for foreign direct investments and economic growth.
  • Clarifies tax jurisdictions to prevent potential tax disputes in cross-border transactions.

Ease of Obtaining a TRC:

  • Process is straightforward, showcasing India’s commitment to international tax standards.
  • Supports the creation of a conducive atmosphere for global business operations.
  • Aims to minimize tax impediments and promote a transparent tax regime.

Navigating the Application Process for a Tax Residency Certificate in India

Obtaining a Tax Residency Certificate (TRC) in India necessitates a thorough understanding of the eligibility criteria and the requisite documentation. The TRC serves as a beacon of tax identity in the international fiscal arena, delineating the tax status of individuals and entities in India.

Eligibility Criteria

The eligibility for obtaining a TRC is encapsulated for both individuals and companies. For individuals, the pivotal factor is residency; they should be residents of India as per the Income Tax Act.

Conversely, companies should be registered and operating in India to be eligible for a TRC. For instance, TechVentures, an Indian startup venturing into the US market, would require a TRC to avail benefits under the Double Tax Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) between India and the USA.

Documentation Required

The documentation trail for TRC primarily consists of identity and tax status verification documents.

For individuals: 

For companies: 

  • Certificate of Incorporation
  • Company's PAN card
  • List of directors and their identification details. 

Additional documentation might include a completed prescribed form (Form 10FA), tax returns of the previous year, and any other documents as requested by the tax authorities.

For example; Global Innovations Pvt Ltd, a growing tech firm in Bangalore, aspires to establish a client base in Germany. To avoid dual taxation and establish its tax residency in India, it decided to apply for a TRC.

The firm meticulously compiles the necessary documents, including the Certificate of Incorporation, PAN Card, and the completed Form 10FA. 

By submitting these documents to the Income Tax Department, Global Innovations is on its way to obtaining the TRC, a stepping stone to foster its global aspirations with minimized tax liabilities.

A Deep Dive into Form 10F for Tax Residency Certificate in India 

Navigating the labyrinth of tax documentation can be daunting, especially when venturing into international waters. One crucial document is Form 10F, an indispensable part of obtaining a Tax Residency Certificate (TRC) in India.

It also serves as a key to availing benefits under Double Tax Avoidance Agreements (DTAA) with other countries.

Form 10F is meticulously crafted to encapsulate essential details that attest to an individual or entity's tax residency status. The form requires details such as name, address, nationality (for individuals), country of incorporation (for entities), tax identification number, residential status for taxation purposes, and other particulars.

This form becomes a quintessence of transparency in cross-border transactions and endeavors to prevent tax evasion.

For example: Imagine TechMinds, an Indian tech giant, seeks to expand its operations to France. To prevent facing double taxation, TechMinds must obtain a TRC from the Indian authorities. Along with other documentation, Form 10F must be accurately filled and submitted.

The details encompassed in Form 10F, like the PAN of the company, its registered address in India, and its tax identification number, play a pivotal role in substantiating the tax residency status of TechMinds in India.

Form 10F bolsters the TRC process by providing a structured format for presenting the requisite information, easing the tax authorities' review process.

For instance, once TechMinds submits Form 10F and other necessary documents, the Indian tax authorities have a clear layout of the company’s tax residency status, expediting the TRC issuance process.

Navigating the Provisions and Compliance of Tax Residency Certificate in India

The Tax Residency Certificate (TRC) is pivotal for individuals and entities aiming to avert double taxation in cross-border engagements. The Indian authorities have crafted a set of provisions and compliance measures to ensure a streamlined process for obtaining a TRC.

The governing provisions for TRC in India are encapsulated under section 90 and section 90A of the Income Tax Act, 1961. They elucidate the prerequisites and procedures for obtaining a TRC.

In essence, a TRC verifies one's tax residency status, and it is quintessential for claiming benefits under the Double Tax Avoidance Agreements (DTAA) that India shares with various countries.

For instance, let’s consider an entrepreneur, Mr. Arjun, who runs a flourishing software development firm in India and has recently undertaken projects from clients based in Germany.

To ensure he isn't doubly taxed on the income earned from Germany, he needs a TRC from the Indian tax authorities.

The compliance journey begins with furnishing a duly filled Form 10FA to the income tax department.

The subsequent step is to obtain Form 10FB, the Tax Residency Certificate, from the authorities. The forms must be meticulously filled with accurate details to avoid hitches.

Moreover, the documentation should be timely, usually within the same fiscal year the income is earned. The TRC should then be presented to the tax authorities in Germany to ensure the benefits under DTAA are rightly accorded.

Benefits of Obtaining a Tax Residency Certificate in India

The Tax Residency Certificate (TRC) is crucial for individuals and entities engaging in cross-border transactions from India. It is a passport to availing tax benefits under the Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAA) India holds with numerous countries. Here, we unveil the manifold benefits of obtaining a TRC, illustrated with unique examples for a clear understanding: 

  • Avoidance of Double Taxation: Mr. Sharma, a software consultant based in India, provides services to a US-based firm. By acquiring a TRC, he ensures that his income is not taxed in the US and India, thus safeguarding his earnings from double taxation.
  • Clarity in Tax Status: A TRC definitively ascertains the tax residency status of an entity. For instance, an Indian company with global operations can seamlessly prove its tax residency to foreign tax authorities, ensuring clarity and compliance.
  • Ease in Foreign Transactions: TRC facilitates smoother transactions with international clients or partners. It minimizes tax-related disputes and promotes a favorable business environment.
  • Compliance with Legal Obligations: By obtaining a TRC, entities adhere to the legal requisites under the Income Tax Act 1961, fostering a culture of compliance and transparency.
  • Reputation Enhancement: Possessing a TRC can significantly enhance a business's reputation on a global platform by ensuring compliance with international tax agreements.
  • Facilitation of Foreign Investments: For example, a TRC can significantly ease the process of attracting foreign investments. Investors often look for such certifications to ensure that the Indian entity complies with tax laws and international agreements.
  • Cost Efficiency: The cost saved from avoiding double taxation could be substantial. This saved capital can be reinvested into the business for further growth. 

Understanding the Tax Residency Certificate (TRC)

Taxation is an imperative facet of international business and finance. The Tax Residency Certificate (TRC) in India is a remarkable step towards simplifying tax compliance for entities and individuals engaged in cross-border financial activities. 

The TRC is a testimonial of an entity's tax residence, enabling them to avail themselves of benefits under the Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA), which India shares with numerous other nations.

For instance, let's envisage an Indian software firm, SoftTech, that provides services to clients in the US.

With a TRC, SoftTech can avail of tax reliefs under the DTAA, reducing the tax burden and augmenting its profit margins.

The process of acquiring a TRC, which involves submitting Form 10F along with other requisite documents, is straightforward and structured, which makes it less daunting for applicants. The procedure's clarity and transparency reflect the government’s initiative to promote global business interactions.

The TRC lays down the path of credibility for Indian businesses and professionals internationally. It is a reputable proof of tax residency, thus promoting a trustworthy business ambiance.

Furthermore, the TRC significantly diminishes instances of tax evasion and ensures a fair tax regime is maintained, fostering a favorable environment for domestic and international investors.

In Conclusion 

The Tax Residency Certificate is a cornerstone for simplifying tax compliance, promoting fair trade, and encouraging a harmonious global business ecosystem. Through TRC, India adheres to international tax standards and facilitates ease of business, making a positive stride towards a robust global trade framework.

This reflects a mature and thoughtful approach toward nurturing a conducive environment for international business engagements and should be a model for other nations to emulate.


Q1. What is a Tax Residency Certificate (TRC)?

A Tax Residency Certificate (TRC) is a document provided by tax authorities to individuals or entities, establishing their tax residency status in a particular country. In India, the TRC helps availing tax benefits under the Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) with other countries.

Q2. How can one apply for a TRC in India?

Applying for a TRC in India requires submission of a duly filled Form 10F along with necessary supporting documents to the Income Tax Department. The process also requires furnishing tax identification numbers, among other details.

Q3. What are the eligibility criteria for obtaining a TRC?

Eligibility for obtaining a TRC is determined by one's tax residency status, as per the taxation laws in India. Typically, individuals and entities with financial transactions across borders require a TRC to avoid double taxation.

Q4. Is Form 10F mandatory for obtaining a TRC?

Yes, Form 10F is crucial for obtaining a TRC in India. It requires details regarding the applicant's tax status, nationality, address, and other relevant information.

Q5. What benefits are provided by a TRC?

TRC enables individuals and entities to avail themselves of benefits under the DTAA, such as reduced tax rates or tax exemptions, thus helping avoid double taxation on the same income.

Q6. What documents are required for the TRC application?

Along with Form 10F, supporting documents such as proof of identity, address, tax identification number, and any other documents specified by the tax authorities may be required.

Q7. How long is the TRC valid for?

The validity of a TRC may vary, but it generally corresponds to a financial year. It's advisable to check the specific validity period on the certificate or with the tax authorities.

Q8. Can the TRC be renewed?

Yes, TRC can be renewed by following a process similar to the initial application.

Q9. Does holding a TRC mean exemption from all taxes?

No, holding a TRC only relieves double taxation but doesn't exempt individuals or entities from fulfilling their tax obligations in India.

Q10. Where can one get more information regarding TRC and its application process?

More information regarding TRC and its application process can be obtained from the Income Tax Department's official website or by contacting a tax consultant.

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Aayush is a strategic growth marketer with over 6 years of experience working in the US and European markets for various financial services companies. He has a proven track record of success in helping businesses grow, increase revenue, and improve marketing strategies.

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